Tirzepatide: First Approval
Funding The preparation of this review was not supported by any external funding.
Authorship and Conflict of interest During the peer review process the manufacturer of the agent under review was offered an opportunity to comment on the article. Changes resulting from any comments received were made by the authors on the basis of scientific completeness and accuracy. Yahiya Y. Syed is a salaried employee of Adis International Ltd/Springer Nature, and declares no relevant conflicts of interest. All authors contributed to the review and are responsible for the article content
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Tirzepatide (Mounjaro™) is a single molecule that combines dual agonism of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors. Native GIP and GLP-1 are incretin hormones that stimulate insulin secretion and decrease glucagon secretion. GIP also plays a role in nutrient and energy metabolism, while GLP-1 also delays gastric emptying, supresses appetite and improves satiety. Eli Lilly is developing tirzepatide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, cardiovascular disorders in T2DM, heart failure, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, obstructive sleep apnoea and for reducing mortality/morbidity in obesity. In May 2022, tirzepatide received its first approval in the USA to improve glycaemic control in adults with T2DM, as an adjunct to diet and exercise. Tirzepatide is in phase III development for heart failure, obesity and cardiovascular disorders in T2DM, and in phase II development for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of tirzepatide leading to this first approval for T2DM.
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