Pegcetacoplan: A Review in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria
Funding The preparation of this review was not supported by any external funding.
Authorship and Conflict of interest Young-A Heo is a salaried employee of Adis International Ltd/Springer Nature, and declares no relevant conflicts of interest. All authors contributed to the review and are responsible for the article content.
Ethics approval, Consent to participate, Consent to publish, Availability of data and material, Code availability Not applicable.
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Subcutaneous pegcetacoplan (EMPAVELI® in the USA and ASPAVELI® in the EU) is the first complement component 3 (C3) inhibitor approved for the treatment of adults with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) in the USA, and in adults with PNH who are anaemic after ≥ 3 months of treatment with a C5 inhibitor in the EU. In the phase III PRINCE trial in adults with PNH who were anaemic and naïve to a complement inhibitor therapy, pegcetacoplan was superior to the control group (supportive care, excluding complement inhibitors) in achieving haemoglobin stabilization and reducing lactate dehydrogenase levels. Similarly, in the phase III PEGASUS trial in adults with PNH who had a haemoglobin level < 10.5 g/dL despite eculizumab therapy, pegcetacoplan was superior to eculizumab in improving haemoglobin levels. In both trials, pegcetacoplan also improved other clinical and haematological parameters of haemolysis, as well as quality of life (QOL) outcomes. Clinical benefits of pegcetacoplan were sustained for up to 48 weeks of treatment. Pegcetacoplan was generally well tolerated in patients with PNH, with its tolerability profile being similar in patients previously treated with eculizumab and in complement inhibitor-naïve patients. Long-term data would be beneficial to further support the safety profile of pegcetacoplan. Current evidence indicates that pegcetacoplan is a valuable treatment option for adults with PNH.