Funding The preparation of this review was not supported by
any external funding.
Authorship and Conflict of
interest During the peer review process the manufacturer of
the agent under review was offered an opportunity to comment on the article.
Changes resulting from any comments received were made by the authors on the
basis of scientific completeness and accuracy. A. Lee is a salaried employee of Adis International Ltd/Springer Nature,
and declares no relevant conflicts of interest. All authors contributed to the
review and are responsible for the article content.
approval, Consent to participate, Consent to publish, Availability of data and
material, Code availability
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Avacopan (TAVNEOS™) is a complement 5a receptor (C5aR) antagonist developed by ChemoCentryx for the treatment of autoimmune diseases including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. The therapeutic effects of avacopan are attributed to the inhibition of C5aR activity on neutrophils, however, the exact mechanism of therapeutic efficacy in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis has not been established. In September 2021, avacopan received its first approval in Japan for the treatment of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), the two most common forms of ANCA-associated vasculitis, where it is being commercialized by Kissei Pharmaceutical through a partnership with Vifor Pharma. In October 2021, avacopan was approved in the USA as an adjunctive treatment in adults for severe active ANCA-associated vasculitis (specifically MPA and GPA) in combination with standard therapy including glucocorticoids (avacopan does not eliminate glucocorticoid use). Avacopan has received a positive opinion in the EU, and is also undergoing regulatory review in Switzerland and Canada. Avacopan is being investigated for the treatment of complement component 3 glomerulopathy, hidradenitis suppurativa, lupus nephritis and IgA nephropathy. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of avacopan leading to these first approvals in Japan and the USA.